"Amazulu" redirects here. For other uses, see Amazulu (disambiguation).
|Regions with significant populations|
|South Africa||10,659,309 (2001 census)
|Zulu (many also speak English, Portuguese, Afrikaans and Xhosa)|
|Christian, Zulu religion|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Nguni, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, other Bantu peoples|
The Zulu were originally a major clan in what is today Northern KwaZulu-Natal, founded ca. 1709 by Zulu kaNtombela. In the Nguni languages, iZulu/iliZulu/liTulu means heaven, or sky. At that time, the area was occupied by many large Nguni communities and clans (also called isizwe=nation, people or isibongo=clan). Nguni communities had migrated down Africa's east coast over centuries, as part of the Bantu migrations probably arriving in what is now South Africa in about the 9th century.
Main article: Zulu Kingdom
Conflict with the British
Main article: Anglo-Zulu WarOn 11 December 1878, agents of the British delivered an ultimatum to 11 chiefs representing Cetshwayo. The terms forced upon Cetshwayo required him to disband his army and accept British authority. Cetshwayo refused, and war followed January 12, 1879. During the war, the Zulus defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January. The British managed to get the upper hand after the battle at Rorke's Drift, and subsequently win the war with the Zulu being defeated at the Battle of Ulundi on 4 July.
Absorption into Natal
Main article: KwaZulu
Main article: Inkatha Freedom PartyInkatha YeSizwe means "the crown of the nation". In 1975, Buthelezi revived the Inkatha YaKwaZulu, predecessor of the Inkatha Freedom Party. This organization was nominally a protest movement against apartheid, but held more conservative views than the ANC. For example, Inkatha was opposed to the armed struggle, and to sanctions against South Africa. Inkatha was initially on good terms with the ANC, but the two organizations came into increasing conflict beginning in 1976 in the aftermath of the Soweto Uprising.
Modern Zulu population
Main article: Zulu languageThe language of the Zulu people is "isiZulu", a Bantu language; more specifically, part of the Nguni subgroup. Zulu is the most widely spoken language in South Africa, where it is an official language. More than half of the South African population are able to understand it, with over 9 million first-language and over 15 million second-language speakers. Many Zulu people also speak Afrikaans, English, Portuguese, Xitsonga, Sesotho and others from among South Africa's 11 official languages.
See also: Swenkas
Religion and beliefs
See also: Zulu mythology
Zulu religion includes belief in a creator God (Unkulunkulu) who is above interacting in day-to-day human affairs, although this belief appears to have originated from efforts by early Christian missionaries to frame the idea of the Christian God in Zulu terms. Traditionally, the more strongly held Zulu belief was in ancestor spirits (Amatongo or Amadhlozi), who had the power to intervene in people's lives, for good or ill. This belief continues to be widespread among the modern Zulu population.
Traditionally, the Zulu recognize several elements to be present in a human being: the physical body (inyamalumzimba or umzimba); the breath or life force (umoyalumphefumulo or umoya); and the "shadow," prestige, or personality (isithunzi). Once the umoya leaves the body, the isithunzi may live on as an ancestral spirit (idlozi) only if certain conditions were met in life. Behaving with ubuntu, or showing respect and generosity towards others, enhances one's moral standing or prestige in the community, one's isithunzi. By contrast, acting in a negative way towards others can reduce the isithunzi, and it is possible for the isithunzi to fade away completely.
Christianity had difficulty gaining a foothold among the Zulu people, and when it did it was in a syncretic fashion. Isaiah Shembe, considered the Zulu Messiah, presented a form of Christianity (the Nazareth Baptist Church) which incorporated traditional customs.
From our blog
Jesus Prayer in Zulu (here)
Nkosi Jesu Kristu, Ndodana kaNkulunkulu ophilayo, ngihawukele mina isoni.
|Orthodox Zulu (from here)|
Politicians and activists
Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini-Zuma - Chairperson, African Union Commission
Credo Mutwa - Spiritual leader of the Zulu people.
Pixley ka Isaka Seme - Founder of African National Congress and the first black lawyer in South Africa.
Jacob Zuma - President of the Republic of South Africa.
Chief Albert Luthuli - President of the African National Congress and first South African Nobel Peace laureate.
King Shaka ka Senzangakhona - Founder of the Zulu Nation
Princess Constance Magogo Sibilile Mantithi Ngangezinye kaDinuzulu - Artist and Zulu Princess
John Langalibalele Dube - first President of the African National Congress, founder of Ohlange Institute, Educator.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi, Inkatha Freedom Party Founder and President
Ben Ngubane, Former SABC Chairperson & Former Premier of Kwa Zulu Natal
Jeff Radebe, Minister in the Presidency for Planning, Performance, Monitoring, Evaluation and Administration
Blade Nzimande, Minister of Higher Education
Malusi Gigaba, Minister of Home Affairs
Nathi Mthethwa, Minister of Arts and Culture
Sibusiso Ndebele, Former Minister of Correctional services & Former Premier of Kwa Zulu Natal
Zanele kaMagwaza-Msibi, Deputy Minister of Science and Technology, Founder of National Freedom Party (splinter group from Inkatha Freedom Party)
Business and professional figures
Phuthuma Nhleko, Former MTN CEO
Professor Njabulo Ndebele, Former University of Cape Town Vice Chancellor & Writer.
Doctor Khumalo, Soccer player
Lucas Radebe, Soccer player
Samkelo Radebe, Paralympic runner and gold medal winner
Siphiwe Tshabalala, Soccer player
Inkatha Freedom Party
List of Zulu kings
List of Zulus
"The Zulu people group are reported in 7 countries". Retrieved 21 August 2015.
International Marketing Council of South Africa (9 July 2003). "South Africa grows to 44.8 million". southafrica.info. Retrieved 4 March 2005.
Bulliet (2008). The Earth and Its Peoples. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 708. ISBN 978-0-618-77148-6. "Ethnologue report for language code ZUL". Ethnologue.
Irving Hexham (1979). "Lord of the Sky-King of the Earth: Zulu traditional religion and belief in the sky god". Studies in Religion (University of Waterloo). Retrieved 26 October 2008.
Henry Callaway (1870). "Part I:Unkulunkulu". The Religious System of the Amazulu. Springvale.
Adam Ashforth (2005). "Muthi, Medicine and Witchcraft: Regulating ‘African Science’ in Post-Apartheid South Africa?". Social Dynamics 31:2. External link in |work= (help)
Molefi K. Asante, Ama Mazama (2009). Encyclopedia of African religion, Volume 1. Sage.
Axel-Ivar Berglund (1976). Zulu thought-patterns and symbolism. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers.
Abraham Modisa Mkhondo Mzondi (2009). Two Souls Leadership: Dynamic Interplay of Ubuntu, Western and New Testament Leadership Values (PDF) (Thesis). submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctorate in Theology, University of Johannesburg.
Nwamilorho Joseph Tshawane (2009). The Rainbow Nation: A Critical Analysis of the Notions of Community in the Thinking of Desmond Tutu (PDF) (Thesis). submitted in fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctorate in Theology, University of South Africa. "Art & Life in Africa Online - Zulu". University of Iowa. Retrieved 6 June 2007.
- History section of the official page for the Zululand region, Zululand.kzn.org
- Izithakazelo, wakahina.co.za