Παρασκευή, 6 Οκτωβρίου 2017

The Desert Fathers: A Sad Omission of the Black Church - A Beacon for Evangelism


Desert Fathers Dispatch (Orthorox African American)

One of the first books I received when I converted to the Orthodox Church was “The Sayings of the Desert Fathers.” Only briefly in Malcolm X’s autobiography did I see any mention that we should even consider knowing about them.  I have read and been familiar with black liberation theology.  But, authors such as Cone and Willmore seemed more willing to use Barth, Tillich, and even Marx as material of how we should consider the place of religion in the black community rather than the wisdom of St. Moses the Black and his contemporaries.  In my years as a Baptist pastor, there was discussion of the latest books and sermons from the latest Christian ministers.  Yet, I can’t say that I had ever heard my former colleagues discuss lessons from the Life of St. Anthony or the Homilies of St. Macarius.  I think this lack of knowledge of the Desert Fathers is detrimental to black Protestantism in a couple of ways.

Denial of the Desert Fathers gives black Christians a lack of an ancient African Christian perspective that we can present to those in our community who are looking for disciplined spiritual path to God.  In the Nation of Islam, Hebrew Israelites, and other beliefs in our community, black men (in particular) are drawn by the challenge of having to read prescribed sets of scriptures and offer prayers that have been handed down for hundreds of years.  While we can point out how Elijah Muhammad, Samuel Crowder, and others do not represent ancient truths; at least they have not turned Islam and Judaism into places of entertainment and emotional release as modern churches have done.  Brothers who are in these faiths are tired of sacredness that constantly tries to mold it’s self into a secular form.  They have no interest in ministers and ministries that are busy keeping up with popular trends.  They want a path of spirituality rooted in something ancient.  The current black church has become too contemporary.

The black church can say, with absolute accuracy, that Jesus was not a blonde haired man with blue eyes and pale skin.  But, what is the point of saying that when they offer no writings (or images) of early Christians that were African?  There are books and writings by the monks of Egypt that would open the eyes of black men to further develop lives of spiritual discipline with prayer, fasting, and challenging ways to consider the scriptures.  Indeed, there are old Coptic, Ethiopian, and even Byzantine and Eastern European icons where Christ, Mary, and the saints look like us.  If black churches put these books and images in the hands of black men, they could be used not only to put brothers back in the pews.  Even more so, they may become stronger Christians as they have authentic tools to help them in this effort.  But, too many in the black clergy and laity are more interested in modern styles rather than ancient spiritual substance.

During Black History Month, church bulletin boards are loaded with pictures of King, Obama, Robinson, Tubman, and Truth.  But, very rarely is there one image of Athanasius, the African bishop who (in 367 AD) put together a list of 27 books he requested the clergy under him to use in worship services.  Though not one of the Desert Fathers himself, Athanasius was under the tutelage of St. Anthony the Great.  And before he accepted the office of bishop, he consulted with the monks that had aided him.  Of all the black inventions from the hot comb to the “super soaker” water gun, very rarely do black Christians speak of the New Testament, the list made by Athanasius, being canonized by the Church at a council in Carthage in 398 AD.  The black church does a poor job of showing how ancient and black Christianity is.  It is a strange thing to say, “Everything I need to know about God is in the Bible,” when you don’t know where the Bible came from and some of the people who it came from looked just like you.
The light of the Desert Fathers could not be hidden.
Arsenius the Roman aristocrat left his power and wealth to come to Egypt and was a disciple of John the Dwarf.  Before becoming one of the Great Cappadocian Fathers, Basil spent time with the monks in Africa and the Middle East.  The Golden Mouthed John Chrysostom spoke highly of the wisdom of Egyptian monks.  John Cassian, Benedict, and others learned from African monastics and built monasteries in Europe.  To this day, Orthodox and traditionally minded Catholics and high church Protestants point back to the words of Desert Fathers as a help to them in the struggle to overcome personal sin and oppression from outside forces.  Where is the advantage of modern black churches not learning from them as well?  Eugene Rose, a southern California intellectual, read the works of ancient saints including those from Africa.  

Words of the African abba Poemen in Facebook from St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary

He became Russian Orthodox and helped publish a magazine that was smuggled into communist nations to help oppressed Christians there keep the faith.  Today, Fr. Seraphim Rose is highly regarded in Eastern Europe and has been an influence on many American converts to Orthodoxy.  In this time of so many social ills in the black community, why don’t we need to know the wisdom Rose learned to help us keep our hands in God’s hand?  Modern black Christians can benefit from these ancient words just as white Christians did in their time of suffering.
There is a growing movement of African-Americans to argue that Christianity is a mere copy of stories from Egyptian religions.  Osiris is also said to have been resurrected from the dead and that his mother, Isis, conceived him miraculously as well.  Some would say that Emperor Constantine and other Romans and Byzantines forced Christianity on the Egyptians and other North Africans as far south as Ethiopia.  Of course this is false.  The Ethiopian Eunuch in Acts 8 was the first Christian of that nation.  The Apostle Matthew evangelized in that kingdom.  Mark the Gospel writer established the church in Egypt.  African martyrs such as Cyprian of Carthage, Maurice of Thebes, Perpetua and Felicity were killed by pagan Romans long before Constantine was even born.  Paul of Thebes, Anthony the Great and other men and women fled to the desert to pursue the spiritual life before Constantine saw any vision of the cross.  And even after becoming Christian, the only city where he had a heavy hand against pagan worship was in his new Roman capital, Constantinople.  But, when modern black Christians do not know about the Desert Fathers or anything else in ancient African Christian history, they are easy prey for those who argue against them.  Sticking one’s head in the sand and saying, “Well, I don’t see all that in the Bible,” is not answering any questions.  Denying a need to reveal the real and whole story of African Christian is stirring up dissatisfaction with the black Church and is helping to cause more of us to leave.

Granted, there was no way for our slave ancestors to have known about ancient African Christians.  Nor were there very many opportunities for those growing up in the Jim Crow era to learn about such history and wisdom.  During the Civil Rights Movement, we were too busy dealing with fire hoses and police dogs to read and contemplate anything from the Desert Fathers.  But, what possible excuse do we have now not to learn about these men and their writings?  Yes, there is still racism in America.  But, no one is stopping us from reading and studying this material that has existed for almost two thousand years.
It is high time for African-American Christians to reclaim this vital element of who we are in the faith.  Books such as the Sayings of the Desert Fathers, Fifty Homilies of St. Macarius, and the Life of St. Anthony the Great are not that hard to order online.  The Coptic Agbeya and Ethiopian Glory of the Kings are also available to anyone who wants them.  Ancient writings such as St. John Cassian’s Institutes and the influential volumes of the Philokalia have a wealth of wisdom from African and Middle Eastern Christians.  More modern Orthodox writers such as Ignatius Brianchaninov, and Seraphim Rose also made use of many quotes from black saints and scholars.  The black community is asking spiritual questions of its church.  I believe we should look to our past for answers.  

The Desert Fathers: A Beacon for Evangelism

Desert Fathers Dispatch

In his autobiography, Malcolm X stated that the Desert Fathers were the founders of Christian Church structure (1).  He also briefly mentioned St. Augustine as a defender of Church doctrine against heresy (2).  While Malcolm said these things specifically in is critique of white racism in Christianity, he does make an incidental point that should not be overlooked.  It ought to be a topic to help the Orthodox Church evangelize to African-Americans and develop a more multi-cultural identity in this nation.  Many of the most heralded saints of early Christianity were Africans. 
At the time I read this, I took Malcolm’s words for granted.  I was planning to become a pastor in a black Baptist Church and figured that I shared the same skin color with these ancient Christians was all the connection I needed with them.  I identified St. Augustine with the Roman Catholic Church and didn’t think that anything he and his contemporaries was important for any Baptist to take note of.  Visiting St. Cyprian of Carthage (OCA) gave me a great respect for the Orthodox as the congregation venerated its patron and St. Moses of Ethiopia even though they were all white.  Again, I had put what I had observed on the back burner of my mind for many years.


After serving over a decade and a half in a black pulpit, I read more about the prayers and spiritual life of some of the Desert Fathers. I was stunned to find that four morning prayers of St. Macarius the Great were found in the popular Russian Orthodox “Jordanville” prayer-book (3) and five in the Antiochian St. Philip’s Prayer Manual (4).  Here was an African, most likely some shade of brown complexion, who was influential for generations of pale skinned people in Eastern Europe and lighter complected Middle Easterners, and my African-American church had no idea of who he was.  I looked further at the life of St. Moses and noticed how this ex-slave and gang leader converted to Christ and became a role model of the faith.  This is similar to my ancestors here being in bondage and the black church inspiring liberation struggles throughout the world.  Moses is not simply some sort of token recently being used to evangelize to black Americans.  During his life, other Christians, such as St. John Cassian, visited and learned great spiritual lessons from him and other Desert Fathers and brought a disciplined spiritual life to Europe (5).
Too much of modern American Christianity, among all ethnic groups, is too busy chasing after the latest fads and fashions of self help and church growth to pay attention to the depth of history and spirituality offered in the Orthodox Church.  Yet, every Black History Month we hear the old African proverb, “If you don’t know your past, you don’t know your future.”  there is great value in knowing the words of African-American Christian leaders from Bishop Richard Allen to James H. Cone.  But, this sort of  Christianity only goes as far back as the early 1700’s on this continent.  If the faith is to grow deep and strong enough to survive our materialistic post-Christian society, African-Americans must tap into and become steeped in the wisdom of the Desert Fathers and African saints.  These are not found in some self-made chuch with self- appointed clergy nor a Protestant denomination that ignores early Christian history.  They are found in the Church that was brought to Africa by the Apostles Mark, Matthew, St. Photini (the Samaritan woman Jesus spoke with at the well) who brought the Gospel to Egypt, Ethiopia, and Carthage at the same time Paul was making his missionary journeys.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nu1TuZc2AbM

Among African-Americans outside of Orthodoxy, we should open our minds and hearts to this Church that has maintained a spirituality from the Desert Fathers that has been universally passed down for 2000 years.  Fr. Seraphim Rose described the words of modern Russian saints like John of Kronstadt as speaking with the same voice as an ancient Egyptian such as Macarius (6).  If we can (as we should) forgive those of our white brothers and sisters who supported slavery and segregation, there is no reason why we can’t be inquisitive about a Church who didn’t create such laws.  The Nubians of modern Sudan were Orthodox Christian up until the 14th century when the Muslims overcame them.  The Orthodox Churches of Egypt and Ethiopia still exist and are growing among us.
Among us Orthodox, we should let the light of Christ and the Desert Fathers shine in us and hold it up for blacks (and others) to see.  There is over 300 years of scars that we African-Americans have endured from bull whips and Jim Crow signs.  Also, we have a church culture that we are quite comfortable since such denominations as the African Methodist Episcopal, National Baptist, and Church of God in Christ, has been a haven for us in a nation that offered us few safe harbors.  Another Pentecost with 3,000 or even a 1986-87 with some 2,000 converts may or may not happen among African-Americans.  But as long as we sow seeds and water them, we are doing God’s will as He gives the increase (7).  He will do his job; we must do ours.
Let us be mindful of the universal message of our faith found in ancient Antioch (8).  Of the five named clergy, two of them were of African origin; one of whom had to have been dark-skinned (Simeon wh was called Niger).  These African and Middle Eastern Christians ordained two of their number that would spread the Gospel to Cyprus, Greece,  Malta, and Italy.  In our racially diverse nation, let us make room at the table and wear garments of love that all may share in the wedding feast to come (9).
______________________________________________________________
  1. Malcolm X & Alex Haley, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Ballentine Books New York NY, 1965, pg. 368
  2. Malcolm X & Haley, pgs. 369-70
  3. Prayer Book, Holy Trinity Monastery, Jordanville NY, pgs. 15-17
  4. St. Philip’s Prayer Manual & Common Discipline, Fellowship of St. John the Divine & Double Eagle Industries 2004, pgs. 28, 29
  5. The Philokalia vol I, Faber & Faber, New York NY 1979, pgs. 72 & 94-108
  6. Hieromonk Damascene, Father Seraphim Rose: His Life and Works,  St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, Platina CA 2010, pg. 471
  7. I Corinthians 3:6, 7
  8. Acts 13:1-3
  9. Matthew 22:9-14

See aso

The Kingdom of Heaven, where racial discrimination has no place
What do we mean by “Fathers of the Church”?
Ancient Christian faith (Orthodox Church) in Africa
African-American Orthodoxy — Eight principal areas of convergence between African spirituality and Ancient Christianity
Fr. Moses Berry, a descendant of African slaves, Orthodox priest and teacher in USA

How “White” is the Orthodox Church?
African Americans & Orthodox Church
The holy anarchists... in the Egyptian Desert
Dream Team of the Desert
Orthodox Monasticism

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