Κυριακή, 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2018

The Sunday of the Prodigal Son, 2nd Sunday of Triodion in the Orthodox Church

Orthodox Archbishopric of Zimbabwe & Angola

Icon from here

The reading of the Gospel this Sunday deals with the parable of the Prodigal Son. If we open up a good Greek Dictionary, we will see that the term “Parable” has about 13 different meanings. In the New Testament books, the term “Parable” refers to the allegorical narration, which our Lord Jesus Christ uses, whereby, with a simple and vivid manner, he teaches important truths of the Christian Religion. That is, the parables used by Christ contain some salvific teaching, namely some teaching, which has a connection with our salvation through Christ – the manner in which man can be saved from the slavery of deceit, ignorance, sin and death. So that sinful man may move from lies to truth, from death to life and from hell to paradise – in order to live in communion with God.

“Prodigal” is the man who lives a dissolute and sinful life. He is the immoral, sinful, licentious man, he who is a spendthrift, so that he might live a dissolute and sinful life. He who can bring calamity upon himself, his family and the community at large. Finally the “prodigal” person is he who gives the impression that he has no hope of salvation, he who is at the end, he who is in despair and desperation. Hence, with the content of life of the prodigal person as the basis, we would be able to say that “profligacy” is a form of debauchery, which is expressed as propensity and an excessive turn about towards the material comforts of life, the dissolute and sinful life, which is accompanied by waste at the same time, when other people are starving and sick people are dying without help and are abandoned.

Many times it happens that we have all the good possessions in life and even so we are not satisfied. The Prodigal son of today’s Gospel extract constitutes such a situation. He had everything and even so, nothing in the end was capable of keeping him close to his father. Hence one day, having asked for his share of the estate, which was his quota, he left his house and “he departed to a foreign country”.

In the person of the younger prodigal son, we recognize that person, who with sin distances himself from his communication with God; God’s presence annoys and constrains the prodigal person. He thinks that God makes his life monotonous and tiring. This is why he tries to get God out of his thoughts, exiling him from his heart. The prodigal person does not want to be dependant on anyone. He has his own perception about freedom. He thinks that freedom means lack of all restraint and he does whatever he wants. He does not understand that the essence of freedom is to make correct choices, with the criterion of the common good and common interest. The prodigal person forgets that real freedom is connected to the bondage of love. This is why he does not entrust himself either to God or to his family. He has faith only in his own capabilities and in creatures, not in the Creator, who is God.

His autonomy and autocracy, which he expresses in the worst possible degree of arrogance, is the source of every sin.

And even when we decide to take God out of our lives, God still does not refuse to offer us his divine gifts. This is why man’s sincere repentance always drives him to his salvation through Christ.


Icon from here
 
The prodigal son chooses a new existential perspective, which leads him to deprivation and loneliness. In the end, far away from his family’s love, he becomes insignificant. Everything changes when he begins to become conscious of his personal guilt. In the beginning, he becomes conscious of the failure of the choices of his life, which occurred with the decision to stop trusting his father. Following this, he accepts the failure of his choice to follow the new existential perspective to live far away from his family.

This acceptance is of great importance, because it is possible for one to arrive at a point of consciousness that somewhere he has gone wrong, but his ego does not allow him to move towards acceptance of his guilt for the failure of his existential perspective to distance himself from his father. Namely: he accepts his guilt and he confesses it without reserve. He does not try to find excuses for his sinful practises and for his personal life. This has special significance, because his acceptance without reservation of his personal guilt, excludes functions at the basis of human existence as cleansing, which strongly relieves a new choice. It is his turning towards repentance, which is manifested with the choice of a new existential perspective. This choice is connected to the perspective of his unworthiness. This is why he asks to become equal to his father’s servant.

The repentance of the prodigal son cannot simply be lived as a change of behaviour but mostly as a sacrifice. Sacrifice has a cost, which is owed to the mistakes of the past. The prodigal son truly repents, because he does not ask to become a son again but a servant, precisely because the consciousness of his guilt makes him humble. He asks for the least, he does not ask for the maximum.

Repentance as self-sacrifice is the only solution for us to face whatever problem we have created with our mistakes. The prodigal son returned to his father’s house when he “came to himself” because he had good and excellent memories of his home In his isolation he remembered all the affection, love and sacrifices of his kindly father and he returned in order to live them again. If he had bad memories of his home he would not have returned. He would have remained in the destruction of his solitude. All have the responsibility of developing the environment, whether in the family or in society, or in the church, or at school and must take special care, because just like the Apostle Paul says, “when one speaks in a bad way, it exhausts one’s being”. 


The surrounding that we create must have such an appearance, so as to make a prodigal person of our time as soon as he “comes to himself”, remember it and return to his home, in order to find affection. This is the deeper meaning of the parable of the prodigal son, which is also known as the parable of the loving father. Wherever there are loving parents, the prodigal people return. Hence, reading the parable of the prodigal son of today’s Gospel extract, one is impressed, as much from the profligacy of the thoughtless child, who recklessly wasted his father’s inheritance and who returns utterly exhausted and repentant to his family home, but from the fact that many times people, throughout the ages, have the tendency to behave as unrepentant prodigal people. Their ego is an insurmountable obstacle which keeps them in their unrepentance.

Hence, far from repentance, which is expressed as humility with the sacrifice of the position which they had before their inclination to sin, they follow the same road as Judas, the road of destruction, the loss of eternal salvation. This unrepentance of man, which is expressed as denial of the common call by God for salvation, in theological terms, constitutes the effect of blasphemy towards the Holy Spirit – sinning of the highest nature, which can never be forgiven, because man with his biological death does not have any more chances to repent. In church practise today this is expressed as the prohibition of performing the holy funeral rites for those who commit suicide. Even if, in the name of freedom, man, in his immunity, drives himself to destruction, his final decision is respected within the boundaries of the Church.



The Sunday of Prodigal Son 2018 in Burundi (here)

Through the behaviour of the prodigal person as the basis we can speak about the profligacy of our time, which is expressed with the unacceptable situation observed in the unfair suffering of the word-wide population. 10 % of the population of this earth enjoys the use of 90 % of worldwide production and 90% of the population constitutes simultaneously an irony because 10% of the population happens to be Christians. The result of the present profligacy of Christians, with the latest statistical facts based on UNICEF is as follows:

1. One third of the children of Africa are under-nourished.
2. About 13 million children die everyday in the undeveloped countries, because they do not have access to some of the goods that Christian children have.
3. Three million children die from dehydration, which brings about diarrhoea.
4. Every year, about 300.000 children are blinded through a lack of vitamin A.
5. In Asia 1 000 000 children, girls and boys, are enslaved to prostitution by European and American Christian business people.
6. 97% of children die before the age of five.
7. About 10.000 000 children suffer from aids, due to the irresponsibility of those who are of age.
8. About 10.000 000 children are orphans, because their parents die from poverty and various illnesses.
9. About 130.000 000 children do not have the means to receive an education at school.
10. Most children’s deaths could be prevented with the provision of basic vaccination which costs just R100 per child.
11. In third world countries 1.5 million people do not have the luxury of clean water and 2 billion do not also have a basic approach to hygienic methods.

The profligacy of our time will only be confined with the repentance of the prodigal people of our Society and with the equal treatment of the innocent people of our planet.
In the face of their personal ego for greater economic gain, the civilized population of the West has learnt to throw milk away and the excesses of their produce is dumped in rubbish heaps. The profligacy of the people of the West is not merely a social injustice, at the expense of our fellow human beings who suffer, who do without all those things that other people throw away and waste, it is that which drives the destruction of those who are ill-treated as well as those who ill-treat, because our survival is assured only with our good will to continually and justly support the terms of our peaceful co-existence.


From Burundi

See also


Sunday of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector (1st Sunday of Triodion in the Orthodox Church)
The Lenten Triodion, starting point for Easter - warnings against pride and hypocrisy
Orthodox Spiritual Legacy: A Guide to the Triodion and Lent, on the Road to Easter



The Gospel of the day
in English, Russian, Portuguese, Arabic and Swahili

Icon from here
 
Orthodox Metropolis of Zambia and Malawi
 

Luke 15:11-32
11 And He said, “A certain man had two sons.
12 And the younger of them said to his father, ‘Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me.’ And he divided unto them his estate.
13 And not many days after, the younger son gathered all together and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living.
14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land, and he began to be in want.
15 And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country, who sent him into his fields to feed swine.
16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine ate, and no man gave unto him.
17 And when he came to himself, he said, ‘How many hired servants of my father’s have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!
18 I will arise and go to my father and will say unto him, “Father, I have sinned against Heaven and before thee,
19 and am no more worthy to be called thy son. Make me as one of thy hired servants.”’
20 And he arose and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him and had compassion, and ran and fell on his neck and kissed him.
21 And the son said unto him, ‘Father, I have sinned against Heaven and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.’
22 But the father said to his servants, ‘Bring forth the best robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand and shoes on his feet.
23 And bring hither the fatted calf and kill it, and let us eat and be merry;
24 for this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.’ And they began to be merry.
25 “Now his elder son was in the field; and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing.
26 And he called one of the servants and asked what these things meant.
27 And he said unto him, ‘Thy brother is come, and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound.’
28 And he was angry and would not go in; therefore came his father out and entreated him.
29 And he answering said to his father, ‘Lo, these many years have I served thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment; and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends.
30 But as soon as this thy son was come who hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf.’
31 And he said unto him, ‘Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine.
32 It was meet that we should make merry and be glad; for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.’”
 

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От Луки 15:11-32
Притча Иисуса о блудном сыне
11 Иисус продолжал:

– У одного человека было два сына. 12 Младший сказал отцу: «Отец, дай мне ту часть наследства, которая причитается мне». И отец разделил имущество между сыновьями. 13 Через несколько дней младший сын собрал все, что у него было, и отправился в далекую страну. Там он растратил все свои средства, ведя распутную жизнь. 14 Когда у него уже ничего не осталось, в той стране начался сильный голод, и он оказался в нужде. 15 Тогда он пошел и нанялся к одному из жителей той страны, а тот послал его на свои поля пасти свиней. 16 Он так голодал, что рад был набить желудок хоть стручками, которыми кормили свиней, но и тех ему не давали.
17 И, опомнившись, он сказал: «Сколько наемных работников в доме моего отца, и у них пища в избытке, а я здесь умираю от голода! 18 Пойду, вернусь к моему отцу и скажу ему: „Отец! Согрешил я против Неба и против тебя. 19 Я больше не достоин называться твоим сыном, обращайся со мной как с одним из своих батраков“». 20 И он встал и пошел к своему отцу.
Когда он был еще далеко, отец увидел его, и ему стало жалко сына. Он побежал к нему навстречу, обнял его и стал целовать. 21 Сын сказал ему: «Отец! Согрешил я против Неба и против тебя. Я больше не достоин называться твоим сыном». 22 Но отец сказал своим слугам: «Идите быстрее, принесите лучшую одежду и оденьте его. Наденьте ему на палец перстень[a] и обуйте его в сандалии. 23 Приведите откормленного теленка и зарежьте его, устроим пир и будем веселиться. 24 Ведь мой сын был мертв, и вот он опять жив! Он был потерян и нашелся!» И они начали веселиться.
25 А старший сын в это время был в поле. Когда он подходил к дому, то услышал, что в доме музыка и танцы. 26 Он подозвал одного из слуг и спросил его, что происходит. 27 «Твой брат пришел, – ответил ему тот, – и твой отец зарезал откормленного теленка, потому что его сын вернулся живым и здоровым». 28 Старший сын рассердился и не захотел зайти в дом. Тогда отец вышел и стал его уговаривать. 29 Но сын ответил: «Все эти годы я работал на тебя, как слуга, и всегда исполнял то, что ты говорил. Ты же никогда не дал мне даже козленка, чтобы я мог повеселиться с друзьями. 30 Но когда этот твой сын, который растратил твое имущество с блудницами, пришел домой, ты зарезал для него откормленного теленка!» 31 «Сынок, – сказал тогда отец, – ты ведь всегда со мной, и все, что у меня есть, – все твое. 32 Но мы должны веселиться и радоваться, ведь твой брат был мертв и ожил, был потерян и нашелся!»
 

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Lucas 15:11-32 Almeida Revista e Corrigida 2009 (ARC)
A parábola do filho pródigo
11 E disse: Um certo homem tinha dois filhos. 12 E o mais moço deles disse ao pai: Pai, dá-me a parte da fazenda que me pertence. E ele repartiu por eles a fazenda. 13 E, poucos dias depois, o filho mais novo, ajuntando tudo, partiu para uma terra longínqua e ali desperdiçou a sua fazenda, vivendo dissolutamente. 14 E, havendo ele gastado tudo, houve naquela terra uma grande fome, e começou a padecer necessidades. 15 E foi e chegou-se a um dos cidadãos daquela terra, o qual o mandou para os seus campos a apascentar porcos. 16 E desejava encher o seu estômago com as bolotas que os porcos comiam, e ninguém lhe dava nada. 17 E, caindo em si, disse: Quantos trabalhadores de meu pai têm abundância de pão, e eu aqui pereço de fome! 18 Levantar-me-ei, e irei ter com meu pai, e dir-lhe-ei: Pai, pequei contra o céu e perante ti. 19 Já não sou digno de ser chamado teu filho; faze-me como um dos teus trabalhadores. 20 E, levantando-se, foi para seu pai; e, quando ainda estava longe, viu-o seu pai, e se moveu de íntima compaixão, e, correndo, lançou-se-lhe ao pescoço, e o beijou. 21 E o filho lhe disse: Pai, pequei contra o céu e perante ti e já não sou digno de ser chamado teu filho. 22 Mas o pai disse aos seus servos: Trazei depressa a melhor roupa, e vesti-lho, e ponde-lhe um anel na mão e sandálias nos pés, 23 e trazei o bezerro cevado, e matai-o; e comamos e alegremo-nos, 24 porque este meu filho estava morto e reviveu; tinha-se perdido e foi achado. E começaram a alegrar-se.

25 E o seu filho mais velho estava no campo; e, quando veio e chegou perto de casa, ouviu a música e as danças. 26 E, chamando um dos servos, perguntou-lhe que era aquilo. 27 E ele lhe disse: Veio teu irmão; e teu pai matou o bezerro cevado, porque o recebeu são e salvo. 28 Mas ele se indignou e não queria entrar. E, saindo o pai, instava com ele. 29 Mas, respondendo ele, disse ao pai: Eis que te sirvo há tantos anos, sem nunca transgredir o teu mandamento, e nunca me deste um cabrito para alegrar-me com os meus amigos. 30 Vindo, porém, este teu filho, que desperdiçou a tua fazenda com as meretrizes, mataste-lhe o bezerro cevado. 31 E ele lhe disse: Filho, tu sempre estás comigo, e todas as minhas coisas são tuas. 32 Mas era justo alegrarmo-nos e regozijarmo-nos, porque este teu irmão estava morto e reviveu; tinha-se perdido e foi achado.
 

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ﻟﻮﻗﺎ 15:11-32
مَثَلُ الابنِ الضّالّ
11 ثُمَّ قالَ يَسُوعُ: «كانَ لِرَجُلٍ ابنانِ، 12 فَقالَ أصغَرُهُما لِأبِيهِ: ‹يا أبِي، أعطِنِي نَصِيبِي مِنَ أملاكِكَ.› فَقَسَّمَ الأبُ ثَروَتَهُ بَينَ ابنَيهِ.

13 «وَلَمْ تَمضِ أيّامٌ كَثِيرَةٌ حَتَّى جَمَعَ الابنُ الأصغَرُ كُلَّ ما يَخُصُّهُ وَسافَرَ إلَى بَلَدٍ بَعِيدٍ. وَهُناكَ بَدَّدَ كُلَّ مالِهِ فِي حَياةٍ مُستَهتِرَةٍ. 14 وَبَعدَ أنْ صَرَفَ كُلَّ ما مَعَهُ، أصابَتْ مَجاعَةٌ شَدِيدَةٌ ذَلِكَ البَلَدَ فَابْتَدَأ يَحتاجُ. 15 فَذَهَبَ وَعَمِلَ لَدَى واحِدٍ مِنْ أهلِ ذَلِكَ البَلَدِ، فَأرسَلَهُ إلَى حُقُولِهِ لِيَرعَى الخَنازِيرَ. 16 وَكانَ يَتَمَنَّى لَوْ أنَّهُ يَستَطِيعُ أنْ يُشبِعَ نَفسَهُ مِنْ نَباتِ الخَرُّوبِ الَّذِي كانَتِ الخَنازِيرُ تَأْكُلُ مِنهُ، لَكِنَّ أحَداً لَمْ يُعطِهِ شَيئاً.
17 «فَعادَ إلَى رُشدِهِ وَقالَ: ‹كَمْ مِنْ أجِيرٍ عِندَ أبِي يَشبَعُ وَيَفضُلُ عَنهُ الطَّعامُ، أمّا أنا فَأتَضَوَّرُ جُوعاً هُنا! 18 سَأقُومُ وَاذْهَبُ إلَى أبِي وَأقُولُ لَهُ: يا أبِي، لَقَدْ أخطَأْتُ إلَى اللهِ وَإلَيكَ، 19 وَلَمْ أعُدْ جَدِيراً بِأنْ أُدعَى ابناً لَكَ، فَاجعَلْنِي كَواحِدٍ مِنَ العامِلِينَ لَدَيكَ.› 20 ثُمَّ قامَ وَذَهَبَ إلَى أبيهِ.
عَودَةُ الابنِ الضّال
«وَبَينَما كانَ ما يَزالُ بَعِيداً، رَآهُ أبُوهُ، فَامتَلأ حَناناً، وَرَكَضَ إلَيهِ، وَضَمَّهُ بِذِراعَيهِ، وَقَبَّلَهُ. 21 فَقالَ الابنُ: ‹يا أبِي، أخطَأْتُ إلَى اللهِ وَإلَيكَ. وَأنا لَمْ أعُدْ جَدِيراً بِأنْ أُدعَى ابناً لَكَ.›

22 «غَيْرَ أنَّ الأبَ قالَ لِعَبيدِهِ: ‹هَيّا! أحضِرُوا أفضَلَ ثَوبٍ وَألبِسُوهُ إيّاهُ، وَضَعُوا خاتَماً فِي يَدِهِ وَحِذاءً فِي قَدَمَيْهِ. 23 وَأحضِرُوا العِجلَ المُسَمَّنَ، وَاذْبَحُوهُ ودَعُونا نَأْكُلُ وَنَحتَفِلُ! 24 لِأنَّ ابنِي هَذا كانَ مَيِّتاً فَعادَ إلَى الحَياةِ، وَكانَ ضالاً فَوَجَدتُهُ.› فَبَدَأُوا يَبتَهِجُونَ وَيَحتَفِلُونَ.
الابنُ الأكبَر
25 «أمّا الابنُ الأكبَرُ فَكانَ فِي الحَقلِ. وَعِندَما جاءَ وَاقتَرَبَ مِنَ البَيتِ سَمِعَ صَوتَ مُوسِيقَى وَرَقصٍ. 26 فَدَعَى واحِداً مِنَ الخُدّامِ وَسَألَهُ عَمّا يَجرِي. 27 فَقالَ لَهُ الخادِمُ: ‹رَجِعَ أخُوكَ، فَذَبَحَ أبُوكَ العِجلَ المُسَمَّنَ لِأنَّهُ عادَ سَلِيماً مُعافَىً.›

28 «فَغَضِبَ الابنُ الأكبَرُ وَلَمْ يَقبَلْ أنْ يَدخُلَ. فَخَرجَ أبُوهُ يَطلُبُ إلَيهِ الدُّخُولَ. 29 فَقالَ لِأبِيهِ: ‹لَقَدْ عَمِلتُ بِجِدٍّ عِندَكَ كُلَّ هَذِهِ السَّنَواتِ، وَلَمْ أعصِ لَكَ أمراً. لَكِنَّكَ لَمْ تُعطِنِي حَتَّى جَدياً لِكَي أحتَفِلَ مَعَ أصدِقائِي! 30 وَعِندَما جاءَ ابنُكَ هَذا، الَّذِي بَدَّدَ أموالَكَ عَلَى السّاقِطاتِ، ذَبَحتَ العِجلَ المُسَمَّنَ مِنْ أجلِهِ!›
31 «فَقالَ لَهُ الأبُ: ‹يا بُنَيَّ، أنتَ دائِماً مَعِي، وَكُلُّ ما أملِكُهُ هُوَ لَكَ. 32 لَكِنْ كانَ لا بُدَّ أنْ نَحتَفِلَ وَنَفرَحَ، لِأنَّ أخاكَ هَذا كانَ مَيِّتاً فَعادَ إلَى الحَياةِ، وَكانَ ضالاً فَوُجِدَ.›»
 

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Luka 15:11-32
Mwana Mpotevu
11 Yesu akaendelea kusema, “Kulikuwa na mtu aliyekuwa na watoto wawili wa kiume. 12 Yule mdogo akamwambia baba yake, ‘Baba, nipe urithi wangu.’ Basi huyo baba akagawanya mali yake kati yao.

13 “Baada ya muda mfupi yule mdogo akakusanya vitu vyote alivyokuwa navyo akaenda nchi ya mbali akaitapanya mali yake kwa maisha ya anasa. 14 Baada ya kutumia kila kitu alichokuwa nacho, kukawa na njaa kali katika nchi ile yote naye akawa hana cho chote. 15 Kwa hiyo akaomba kibarua kwa raia mmoja wa nchi hiyo aliyemtuma shambani kwake kulisha nguruwe. 16 Akatamani kujish ibisha kwa maganda waliyokuwa wanakula nguruwe, wala hakuna mtu aliyempa cho chote cha kula.
17 “Hatimaye akili zikamrudia, akasema, ‘Ni watumishi wan gapi walioajiriwa na baba yangu ambao wana chakula cha kuwatosha na kusaza nami hapa nakufa kwa njaa! 18 Nitaondoka nirudi kwa baba yangu nikamwambie, ‘Baba, nimetenda dhambi mbele ya Mungu na mbele yako. 19 Sistahili kuitwa mwanao tena; nifanye kama mmoja wa watumishi wako.’ 20 Basi akaondoka, akaenda kwa baba yake. Lakini alipokuwa bado yuko mbali, baba yake akamwona, moyo wake ukajawa na huruma. Akamkimbilia mwanae, akamkumbatia na kumbusu. 21 Yule mtoto akasema, ‘Baba, nimekosa mbele ya Mungu na mbele yako. Sistahili kuitwa mwanao tena.’ 22 Lakini baba yake aka waambia watumishi, ‘Leteni upesi kanzu iliyo bora mumvalishe. Pia mvalisheni pete na viatu. 23 Kisha mleteni yule ndama aliyenona mkamchinje; ili tule tusherehekee. 24 Kwa maana huyu mwanangu alikuwa amekufa, na sasa yu hai tena; alikuwa amepotea na sasa amepatikana.’ Basi wakaanza sherehe.
25 “Wakati huo kaka yake alikuwa shambani. Alipokuwa ana karibia nyumbani akasikia sauti ya nyimbo na ngoma. 26 Akamwita mmoja wa watumishi akamwuliza, ‘Kuna nini?’ 27 Akamwambia, ‘Mdogo wako amekuja, na baba yako amemchinja yule ndama aliyenona kwa sababu amempata mwanawe akiwa mzima.’ 28 Yule kaka akakasi rika, akakataa kuingia ndani. Basi baba yake akaenda nje akaanza kumbembeleza. 29 Lakini yeye akamjibu baba yake, ‘Angalia, miaka yote hii nimekutumikia na hata siku moja sijaacha kutii amri zako, lakini hujanipa hata mwana mbuzi ili nisherehekee na mara fiki zangu. 30 1Lakini huyu mwanao ambaye ametapanya mali yako kwa makahaba amerudi nyumbani nawe umemchinjia ndama aliyenona!’
31 “Baba yake akamwambia, ‘Mwanangu, umekuwa nami siku zote na vyote nilivyo navyo ni vyako. 32 Lakini ilitubidi tufurahi na kusherehekea kwa sababu mdogo wako alikuwa amekufa na sasa yu hai tena, alikuwa amepotea naye amepatikana.”’ Mfano Wa Meneja Mjanja


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